animated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbol



animated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbolanimated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbolanimated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbolanimated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbol


animated gold Buddhist wheelBUDDHISManimated gold Buddhist wheel

animated gold crossCHRISTIANITYanimated gold cross


anamated gold Hindu OmHINDUanamated gold Hindu Om

animated gold Islamic Religious symbolISLAManimated gold Islamic Religious symbol

animated gold Star of DavidJUDAISManimated gold Star of David

animated yin-yang symbolTAOISTanimated yin-yang symbol

animated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbolanimated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbolanimated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbolanimated gold crossanimated gold Star of Davidanimated gold Islamic Religious symbolanamated gold Hindu Omanimated gold Buddhist wheelanimated yin-yang symbol


Sidhartha Gautama, the Buddha:

Sidhartha was born a prince (563 B.C.; Kapilavastu, India) into the Gautama family of the Shakaya clan. He lived a luxurious life and the best education that his father's wealth could provide, but his father also sheltered him from the hardships of life. He married a woman named Yashodhara and they lived in his father's house.

Then, during one of his few excursions from the protection of his father's palace, Sidhartha saw three things which opened the harsh realities of life to him. He saw an old man, suffering from the frailties of age. He saw a sick man, suffering from disease. He also saw a dead man, which shocked him greatly. He finally realized that the infirmities of old age, and the pain of sickness and death cause suffering that he had never experienced. This revelation caused him to begin a search for truth that drastically changed his life, and the lives of many around him..

At the age of thirty-five, on the night of the full moon, Sidhartha reached enlightenment and became an "enlightened one"--a Buddha (c. 528 B.C.) He had at last discovered the truth he had sought, and he immediately shared it with five ascetics who had practiced near with him.

After a few weeks of rest, he decided to teach the way to enlightenment to others and went to Deer Garden where he held his first sermon, "The turning wheel of Dharma." Sidhartha felt a strong call to missions even though he could never teach the content of enlightenment, only the way of enlightenment. Buddha called his teachings "the middle way",because it was in the middle between asceticism and indulgence.

For the next forty-five years he taught as the Buddha or "Shakyamuni" (sage of the shakaya"). He also established a community of monks called sanga.

The Buddha died after forty-five years of teaching at the age of eighty


 General Resources

Pages from Richard Hooker's e-Anthology of World Cultures provide solid academic introduction to the development of Buddhism in India & Japan (Chinese pages not on-line as of 6/30/97).
Buddhism Bookmarks

Index of Buddhist sites posted on the South Korean Home Page by Felsing at U of Oregon provides basic bookmarks for primary sources, journals & general Buddhist sites including those in Korean.
Buddhist Studies - WWW Virtual Library

T. Matthew Ciolek maintains a guide to all resources for Buddhist studies on the internet (updated daily).
Center for Buddhist Studies - National Taiwan University

Comprehensive catalog of on-line Buddhist texts & other resources in English & Chinese. Many links require Chinese "Big 5" character-set Chinese "Big 5" character-set for browsers. Mirror site at Ohio U.
Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon

On-line version of 160,000 term Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary, searchable in either English or Sanskrit.
The Gateless Passage

Charles Patton's introduction to Chinese Buddhism includes history, a glossary of Buddhist terms & an archive of translated classics, including the Diamond Sutra, Heart Sutra, Pure Land Sutra, & Parinirvana Sutra.
DharmaNet International

Berkeley-based central directory to everything Buddhist on the WWW. Gateway to cyber-libraries of Buddhist texts, art, & other academic resources.
Journal of Buddhist Ethics

An international on-line scholarly journal devoted to research on the principles & application of Buddhist ethics in the broadest sense of that term. Provides access to the on-line Pali canon (with down-loadable font converter) & a gateway to resources for Buddhist research on the WWW. Based at PSU.
Kalavinka Dharma Notes

Non-sectarian Buddhist journal & review posts translations of classic Buddhist texts in addition to articles & book reviews.


Siddhartha Gautama - the Buddha
Buddha's Birthplace

1996 AP article on excavations at Lumbini (Nepal) that located shrine erected by Ashoka identifying site as Siddhartha's birthplace (posted by Friends of Buddhism).
Dhammapada Selections

More than 80 important sayings from the compendium of teaching ascribed to the founder of Buddhism. From Richard Hooker's Anthology of World Cultures.
The Fire Sermon

Buddha's celebrated sermon on release from the flames of the sensual world through disenchantment & dispassion. From the Samyutta Nikaya in the Pali Tipitaka (posted by John Bullit).
The Gospel of Buddha

Electronic edition of Paul Carus' 1915 compilation of key texts from the Buddhist canon & other sources about Siddhartha Gautama & his teaching.
The Historical Siddhartha

Academic introduction to the life & thought of the founder of Buddhism (page from Richard Hooker's Anthology of World Civilizations).
Life of Gotama Buddha

Lavishly illustrated recounting of Siddhartha Gotama's life & enlightenment from the Thai web site of Jan Sanjivaputta with links to the Tipitaka & other SE Asian resources.
Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion


Early Christian symbol for the trinityCHRISTIANITY

AmishAMISH FAITH The Amish are tied to their Reformation beginnings by their history, faith, simple way of life, and plain dress. The Amish grew out of the Reformation Anabaptist movement that began in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1525.

Apostolic Faith ChurchApostolic Christian Church of America The church was founded in the early 1830's by Samuel Froehlich, a young seminary student in Switzerland, who had experienced a Biblical conversion.

Assemblies of God Welcome to the Assemblies of God The Assemblies of God  The Assemblies of God has its roots in a religious revival that began in the late 1800's and swept into this century with widespread repetition of biblical spiritual experiences.

BaptistIndependent Fundamental Baptist Church   In 1608, John Smyth baptized himself in Amsterdam. He had been a fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, but as a Separatist fled from the harsh rule of James I's England. After his death one of his associates, Thomas Helwys, led back to England a group that had split from Smyth's former congregation. They formed the first General or Arminian Baptist congregation in England at Spitalfields, London, in 1612.

Calvary Chapel Calvary Chapel Homepage This church was formed in the early 1900's

Christian Reformed Church Christian Reformed Church of North America The Christian Reformed Church, founded in 1857, is a Protestant church in the Calvinist tradition

Christian Scientist Christian Scientist  In 1879, Mrs. Eddy established the Church of Christ, Scientist, and subsequently founded its various periodicals and activities. In 1895, she published the first edition of the Manual of The Mother Church. One of her last and greatest accomplishments was founding The Christian Science Monitor in 1908—her 88th year

Church of the Nazarene NAZARENE CHURCH Organized October 8, 1908, in Pilot Point, Texas, the Church of the Nazarene has made its home in Kansas City, Mo., since shortly after the birth of the denomination.

Episcopal/AnglicanEpiscopal Church   The Anglican Catholic Church  An Anglo-American denomination finding its seeds in the drama unfolding with England's separation from Rome under King Henry VIII. The Episcopal Church is the name for the Anglican church in the US. 

LutheranEvangelical Lutheran Church in America  Project Wittenberg  This is the period when Lutheranism developed--something which Luther foresaw and condemned. The Book of Concord, which sets out what we now understand as theranism, was published in 1580. It included Melanchthon's Augsburg Confession and Augsburg Apology; Luthers's two Catechisms and the Schmalkald Articles (drawn up in 1537); and the Formula of Concord. Some of the Lutheran theologians drove large numbers of people over to the Calvinist church through their dogmatism. The Calvinists in Germany adopted the Heidelberg Confession as their statement of faith.

Jehovah's Witnesses  Jehovah's Witnesses Group organized by Charles Russell in the 1870's in New York. Russel had predicted in his writings that the Messiah would return in 1914

Mennonites General Mennonite Conference In 1525, several members set themselves apart from the official church by publicly declaring their faith in Jesus Christ and re-baptizing each other.

Messianic Jews   Messianic Jewish Alliance of America The Messianic Jewish Alliance of America has been in existence since 1915, successfully ministering to Jewish believers in the Messiah Jesusin not only the United States but throughout the world as well

MethodistsUnited Methodist Church  It all began with John and Charles Wesley at Oxford sometime around 1728, when the two brothers, alarmed at the spread of deism on campus, organized meetings with students who were serious about their religion. In scorn the label "Methodists" stuck

Official home page of the United Methodist Church

Methodist Archives and Research Centre Official archives respository of the British Methodist Church.The manuscript and printed collections cover 250 years of Methodist history

Mormon The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.  Founded by Joseph Smith Jr. in 1827 after he stated he recieved a sacred text, The Book of Mormon, from an angel.  Contains the official website of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Contains items such as Proclamation to the World, Free Book of Mormon, Church policies, etc.

Orthodox The Great Schism (separation) from the Roman Catholic Church began in the year 451  when Greek and Russian Bishops decided to break away from the authority of the Pope

Orthodox Christian  

Orthodox Church of EgyptThe Coptic Church is based on the teachings of Saint Mark who brought Christianity to Egypt during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero in the first century, a dozen of years after the Lord's ascension.

Russian Orthodox Orthodox Church in America   In spite of pressures from Roman Catholic Europe in the West and from Islam in the East, a narrow corridor remained open to the north for Eastern Orthodoxy. In the ninth century Boris, king of the Bulgarians, was converted and in the tenth, Vladimir, grand prince of Kiev and of all Russia was also converted. Over the years Russia made the aesthetic glories of Orthodox Christianity her own. Gradually Moscow came to see herself as the leader of the Orthodox world. Some have called Moscow the third Rome.

PentecostalUnited Pentecostal International  The evangelical awakening gained unexpected reinforcement in 1906 from another source of "personal" Christianity, Pentecostalism. The Pentecostal experience--"the baptism of the Holy Spirit with the evidence of speaking in tongues"--was not new. The spark of twentieth-century Pentecostalism as a three-year-long revival, beginning in 1906, at the Azusa Street Mission in Los Angeles.

PresbyterianPresbyterian  Designating a church which upholds church government by presbyters, or elders. It is a form of church government which invests presbyters, or elders, with all spiritual power and admits no prelates over them. Under King Charles I, the Presbyterians held sway in England's Parliament. When Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector after Charles' execution he purged Parliament of Presbyterian control.

Quakers/FriendsThe Religious Society of Friends  "Quaker" was a derisive name. In 1650 Judge Bennett told George Fox that he knew that at the meetings of Fox and his followers people shook with emotion. So he told him, "you folk are the tremblers, you are the quakers." And the name stuck.

Roman Catholic  2000 Years Old and the Oldest Christian Denommination

The Vatican The Official Site of the Holy See (it really is a sight to see!)

John Raymond's extensive e-catalog of websites of concern to Catholics includes links to sites dealing with angels, apologetics, apostles, apparitions, authority, canon law, charismatics, celibacy, church councils & constitutions, dogma, encyclicals, infallibility, liturgy, magisterium, Mariology, papacy, priesthood, sacraments, saints, and dozens of other topics (Augustinian Monks of Adoration).

Catholic Resources on the NetNews, Liturgy and Worship, Scripture, Writings from the early Church (1-500), Vatican II documents (1962-1965), Selected papal encyclicals and pronouncements, Classic Catholic-related Books, History and Culture (Miscellaneous), ...

 CICI Catholic Information Center on Internet CICI is a central directory and repository of all data on Internet that reflect the Magisterium or authoritative teaching of the Catholic Church--using hyperlinks to Internet sites, home pages documents and discussion groups


Mr. Heitmann's Catholic Page


Salvation Army Salvation Army  The most outstanding example of ministry to the dispossessed was the work of a pietistic evangelical William Booth (1829-1912). He started his ministry with the Methodist New Connection but soon withdrew to work with London's poor. His street preaching in London's East End in 1864 met with phenomenal success. Within eleven years he had thirty-two stations promoting evangelism and social service among London's destitute. His workers, organized like a military unit, were soon called the Salvation Army. Evangelist Booth became General Booth.

Seventh Day AdventistsThe Seventh-day Adventist Church  Organized by James and Ellen White in 1863. Adventists believe in reading the Bible Literally.

UnitarianUnitarian Universalist Historical Society The Unitarian Universalist Historical Society is an affliate organization of the Unitarian Universalist Association.

 General Resources

Jesus & Christology
Ancient Jewish Accounts of Jesus

Alternate viewpoints to the gospels. Alan Humm posts & analyzes references to Jesus in Josephus, the Mishnah, Babylonian Talmud & Toldoth Yeshu.
Divine Mediator Figures in the Biblical World

J. R. Davila's course on the cultural matrix that gave rise to NT Christology & the veneration of Jesus, presents lectures & on-line discussion.
Flavius Josephus

Peter Kirby presents a detailed review of references to Jesus in the works of the 1st c. Jewish historian & the critical debate regarding their authenticity.
A Historical Approach to Jesus

A critique of claims that all material in the gospels is historically accurate (by Kevin Davidson).
The Historical Jesus vs. the Christ of Faith

A practicing Christian's essay on the differences between the Jesus of history and later Christology argues the case for both (by Kevin Davidson).
The Historical Jesus, a Reconstruction: the Story of a Man

B. Muller presents & analyzes texts from the NT, Josephus & other first century sources to reconstruct the historical thread from Jesus' human origins to his execution.
The Jefferson Bible

E. R. Coates provides a hypertext edition of Thomas Jefferson's harmonized & expurgated version of the gospels, portraying Jesus as an ethical teacher.
Jesus & the Word

Full text of Rudolf Bultmann's reconstruction & interpretation of the message of Jesus. A seminal work for the renewed Quest of the historical Jesus (posted by Religions On-line).
Jesus at 2000

Archive of the e-mail debate generated by the cyber-symposium celebrating the 2nd millennium of Jesus' birth (Feb/March 1996). Questions & answers regarding the historical Jesus posed to/by Marcus Borg, Dominic Crossan & Luke Timothy Johnson.
Jesus for a No-God World

Full text of Neill Hamilton's 1969 book arguing that the ethics of Jesus are the only basis for continuing to regard him as the eschatological prophet (posted by Religion On-line).
The Jesus of History & the Future of Faith

R. W. Kropf reviews the philosophical issues involved in the renewed quest of the historical figure of Jesus & its potential for renewing the faith of (rather than in) Jesus, with responses (DiaLogos 6).
Jesus of Nazareth in Early Christian Gospels

Andrew Bernhard's comprehensive annotated bibliography to electronic & print resources on all extant gospels written before the end of the 2nd c. CE
Jesus' Many Faces

PBS Frontline surveys leading scholars' views of Jesus.
The Jesus Seminar Forum

Official website of the cooperative scholarly project to identify the historical core of all ancient reports of Jesus' sayings & deeds and reassess profiles of Jesus.
Kerygma & Myth

Rudolf Bultmann's seminal essays calling for a demythologized existentialist interpretation of the NT message & picture of Jesus, with critiques by Julius Schniewind, Ernst Lohmeyer, Helmut Thielicke & Friedrich Schumann & Austin Farrer (posted by Religion On-line).
The Life of Jesus by Ernest Renan

Cam Howard's graphic interactive introduction to Marcus Borg's reconstruction of the pre- & post-Easter Jesus focuses on dimensions of his spirit, wisdom, & social politics. With audio clips of Borg (United Theological Seminary, Dayton OH)..
The Real Jesus?

Richard Shand's extensive anthology of suggestive excerpts (from primary sources to the most recent Jesus scholarship) presents a stimulating spectrum of viewpoints, limited only by a lack of page references in citing secondary texts.
The Shroud of Turin

Links to the renewed debate regarding the relic presented as Jesus' burial cloth are found on the Art & Archaeology page.
Was there a Messiah-Joshua Tradition at the Turn of the Era?

Robert Kraft's 1992 JUDAIOS article highlights evidence that before Jesus of Nazareth some Jews in northern Palestine anticipated appearance of a second Joshua.
XTalk: Historical Jesus & Christian Origins

Early Church

On-line version of William Barry's Catholic Encyclopedia article on the 4th c. doctrinal controversy.

James J. O'Donnell provides a biographical sketch of the African bishop & an archive of his writings (many in the original Latin as well as English translation) along with scholarly introductions & commentaries. Works include the Confessions, On Christian Doctrine, On Dialectic, & the Sermon on the Mount.
Center for Marcionite Research

Site devoted to study of Marcion of Sinope, the 2nd c. dualistic reformer whose radical interpretation of Paul polarized churches from Asia Minor to Rome & sparked the development of the NT. On-line library includes important assessments by modern scholars & ancient polemicists as well as reconstructions of Marcion's gospel, letters of Paul & theological antitheses.
Christian Catacombs of Rome

Italian commercial site provides a map, images & historical commentary on the several tomb complexes in which early Christians found refuge.
Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Project hosted by Calvin College will put all 38 volumes of the Ante-Nicene, Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers on-line. English translations of all orthodox Christian theologians from Clement of Rome through 800 CE Zipped for downloading.
The Confessions of Augustine

Electronic version of J. J. O'Donnell's 1992 Oxford U. Press critical edition has complete Latin text with commentary (posted by the Stoa Consortium).
The Ecole Initiative

Hypertext encyclopedia of early Christian history offers well-researched articles on the Arian controversy, Docetism, Edessa, the Eleusinian mysteries, Mithraism, Monarchianism, Pharisees, Pontius Pilate, Sadducees, Stoicism, Ambrose & Jerome with other articles on church fathers & Plotinus forthcoming. Copyrighted by Anthony Beavers, with articles copyrighted by contributors. A stimulating example of what serious cyber-scholarship & publishing can be.
Egeria & the Fourth Century Liturgy of Jerusalem

Michael Fraser provides Latin & English versions of the diary of a western pilgrim that documents the annual cycle of Christian liturgical celebrations in the churches of Constantine.
Fathers of the Church Page

The Wesley Center of NW Nazarene College's non-canonical homepage accesses complete works of apostolic fathers (Didache, Clement of Rome, Barnabas, Mathetas, Polycarp & Ignatius) & Justin Martyr. Selected works of Irenaeus, Tertullian, Athanasius, Basil, Jerome, Chrysostom, Augustine & Theodore of Studium. Links to most other sites of texts relevant to early Christianity.
Fathers of the Church

A more aesthetic edition of the preceding works published by New Advent Catholic Website.
The First Christians

PBS Frontline surveys leading scholars' views of the social development of the early Jesus movement.
Guide to Early Church Documents

John Brubaker & Gary Bogart maintain an up-to-date annotated index of hypertext editions of Christian theological sources from the NT thru the 2nd Council of Constantinople (533 CE) & a few later works.
The Hall of Church History  

Phil Johnson's archive of Christian theology includes a catalog of creeds & catechisms (from the NT to Chalcedon & beyond) & writings of theologians from the apostolic fathers to Augustine.
Medieval Sourcebook: Imperial Reactions to Christianity

Paul Halsall provides the correspondence between Pliny & Trajan (111 CE), descriptions of Diocletian's edicts (303 CE) to eradicate Christianity & the subsequent edicts of toleration published by Galerius (311 CE) & Constantine (313 CE), along with accounts of famous martyrs.
Orthodoxy & Heresy in Earliest Christianity

Robert Kraft edits on-line ET of Walter Bauer's seminal 1934 thesis that heterodoxy preceded orthodoxy in the first three centuries of the church. Appendix on Jewish Christianity by Georg Strecker.
Why Did Christianity Succeed?

PBS Frontline surveys leading scholars' views of the factors that transformed a persecuted Jewish sect into the religion of the Roman empire.


Eastern Orthodoxy
The Gregory of Nyssa Home Page

David Salomon presents hypertext editions of Casimir McCambley's translations of & commentaries on the Cappodocian theologian's works. Included among many homilies, eulogies, letters are Gregory's Commentary on the Song of Songs, Against Apollinarius, & On Perfection.
Medieval Sourcebook: The Iconoclasm Controversy

Paul Halsall posts extracts from John of Damascus, the iconoclastic council of Constantinople (754) & the 2nd council of Nicea (787).
The St. Pachomius Library

Fledgling e-archive of uncopyrighted English translations of Orthodox Christian texts catalogs works by either culture---Greek (pre-1200), Byzantine (post-1200), Syriac, African---or type (biography, liturgy). Includes works by Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Theodore of Studium, Ephraim of Edessa.


Medieval Latin Christianity
The Crusades (Internet Medieval Sourcebook)

Paul Halsall collects papal appeals & crusaders' accounts.
Exploring Ancient Cultures: Medieval Europe

The medieval chapter of Bill Hemminger's elegant on-line anthology provides, texts, maps, chronology, essay & exam on European Christianity from 500-1300 c.e. Readings include scholastic proofs for the existence of God (Anselm & Aquinas) & debate of ethical issues (war, cheating, lust, etc.)
The Franciscans

The official Franciscan web page presents histories of Francis & Clare of Assisi, their respective orders (the Friars Minor, the Poor Clares) & spin-offs (Capuchins & Conventuals).
St. Francis of Assisi

New Advent puts Paschal Robinson's CE article on the thirteenth c. reformer on line.
The Gregorian Chant Home Page

Peter Jeffery explains the historical development of chant in Christianity & posts textual, audio & cyber-resources for research on Gregorian chant & medieval Christianity (Princeton University).
A Guide to 13th century Theologians

Gary Macy's comprehensive catalog of secular, Dominican & Franciscan masters offers medievalists a capsule sketch of each figure, a list of surviving works & recent bibliography. Site still in the initial stages of construction is currently limited to off-line resources.
The Labyrinth

Martin Irvine & Deborah Everhart's website coordinates a broad-range of on-line resources for the study of medieval culture, including bookshelves of Latin philosophical & theological texts & religious history.
Medieval Sourcebook: Monasticism

Paul Halsall's collection includes monastic rules (Augustine, Benedict, Columba) & other texts from influential Latin monks (including Gregory I, Bede, Boniface).
Netserf: the Internet Connection for Medieval Resources

Beau Harbin's catalog of over 1000 websites relevant to medieval studies includes a page devoted to religion.
ORB: On-Line Reference Book For Medieval Studies

Cooperative scholarly project to establish a common textbook source for medieval studies on the WWW. The ORB Encyclopedia provides access to original essays on medieval topics posted on various websites. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook offers links to both assignment-sized extracts & complete documents organized by period & culture.
Order of St. Benedict: Rule

Primary Latin monastic rule (translated into English, Spanish & Hungarian) with historical preface by Jerome Theisen & an extensive bibliographical index.
St. Benedict & His Order

Historical sketch of Benedict & Benedictine spirituality with profiles of Gregory the Great & Augustine of Canterbury who spread the Benedictine rule. (Posted by the Monastery of Christ in the Desert).
Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas

On-line translation of the 13th c. Dominican master's massive compendium of theological questions. Primary source of later RC Thomistic theology.
William of Ockham, Dialogus

Cyber-edition of Latin text & English translation of 14th c. defense of radical Franciscans in their dispute with Pope John XXII. Influential pre-Reformation critique of the papacy (Fine example of use of internet for current critical scholarship, from John Kilcullen & John Scott).


Protestant Reformation
John Calvin: Institutes of Christian Religion

Douglas Whitehead presents a hypertext edition of the Geneva reformer's masterpiece of systematic theology.
Luther's Small Catechism

(posted by MIT Lutheran-Episcopal ministry).
Martin Luther: a Brief Biography

Background & highlights of Reformer's life posted by the city of Wittenberg where he posted the 95 theses that led to his excommunication.
Project Wittenberg

Concordia's Robert E. Smith coordinates a collegial project dedicated to putting the works of Martin Luther (1483-1546) & other Lutheran reformers on the WWW in the original language & English translation. In addition to various worship materials the archive currently includes Luther's 95 theses (1517), his small & large catechisms, Melanchthon's History of the Life & Acts of Luther & the Augsburg Confession (1530)



Confucius (551-479 BC), Chinese philosopher, one of the most influential figures in the history of China. Living at a time when intrigue and vice were rampant, Confucius believed that people must revive the principles of the ancient sages. He therefore lectured to his pupils on the classics and taught the value of the power of example. Confucius did not write down the principles of his philosophy. The Analects, a work compiled by some of his disciples, is considered the most reliable source of information about his life and teachings.

The Chinese Philosophy Page

Switch to a graphics viewer and you will be able to

Reading HXWZ without Chinese Software

Charles Muller provides fresh English translations of the Analects, Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean, & Mencius.

Richard Hooker sketches the influence of the Chinese master K'ung Ch'iu (6th c BCE ) & his principle of jen.
The I Ching on the Net

George Whincup's comprehensive index of websites devoted to the Book of Changes, conventional commentary (from Rick le Mon's Introduction to Cyrille Javary's Understanding the I-Ching to Tony Granillo's masters thesis, Proving the I-Ching) & on-line divination.
Lun Yu - Analects of Confucius

Full text of the primary Confucian classic in Chinese & English, with multilingual annotations from the shelves of the reading room of China the Beautiful.
The Geography of Confucianism

Page from The Geography of Religion, a research project of students of Morehead State U, provides basic cultural information.
Multi-lingual Site of On-Line Confucius Publishing

Features a traditional biography of Confucius, with elegant parallel English/Chinese texts of the Analects, the Record of Rites (book 9), Mencius 6.2.15 & an extensive picture archive with over 200 on-line images,




Hinduism views existence as composed of three worlds. The First World is the physical universe; the Second World is the subtle astral or mental plane of existence in which the devas, angels and spirits live; and the Third World is the spiritual universe of the Mahadevas, "great shining beings," our Hindu Gods. Hinduism is the harmonious working together of these three worlds.

Introduction to Hinduism

General Resources
Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon

On-line version of 160,000 term Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary, searchable in either English or Sanskrit.
Facets of Religion: Hinduism

The WWW Virtual Library's catalog of important internet resources on Hinduism. Needs updating.
Hindu Resources On-Line

Kauai-based Himalayan Academy's extensive directory to websites pf Hindu teachers & organizations, temples & ashrams, publications, dharma & philosophy, culture & ancient science.
The Hindu Tantric HomePage

Hindu megasite presents Mike Magee's on-line translations of important texts illustrating the beliefs & practices of tradition of devotion to the Goddess that has influenced many Hindus for the past millennium. Includes helpful guides to basic gods, goddesses, rituals, symbolic images, reference material, & an extensive glossary of basic tantric terms.
The Hindu Universe

The Hindu Students' Council's systematic gateway to Hindu resources in cyberspace features a picture gallery of gods, devotional chants (bhajan), a festival index, worship rituals (puja), biographies of saints & great Hindus, an introduction to Hindu philosophy (dharma), & on-line versions of Hindu scriptures.
Namaste: Spirituality, Yoga, Hinduism Page

Explains difference between spirituality & religion, providing detailed overviews & links to resources on yoga & Hinduism, including a comprehensive on-line Sanskrit Documents List.


Islamic Shriner InsigniaISLAM

Founded in the Arabian Penisula by the Prophet Muhammad (A.D. 570-632) who was said to recieve direct revelations by God over a twenty year period.  

The concept of God (Allah) in Islam is enunciated by God Himself in His revelation, the Holy Qur'an. It is expanded upon by the Final Prophet of God, Muhammad [peace upon him and his household] and further clarified by the successor to the Prophet, the Imam Ali.

Al-Islam The BEST SITE for information regarding Islam

General Resources
The Hajj Information Centre

Official website of the center for pilgrimages to Mecca includes an explanation & diagram of the once-in-a-life journey , images of the black stone & shrine & links to related pages on the information.
Introduction to Islam

Answers to basic questions of non-Muslims.
Islamic Architecture

Views of mosques & other Muslim structures from Samarkand to Seville (courtesy of Thais).
Islamic Gateway

The resource center of this mostly non-partisan cyber-portal Islamic resources on the WWW offers quick access to sites concerned with art, history & science, Muhammad, Qur'an, tradition & inter-faith relations.
Islamic Studies, Arabic & Religion WebPage

Alan Godlas' comprehensive guide to the Islamic world & gateway to related resources on the internet presents well-annotated pages on the Quran & Muhammad, standards of faith & practice, Sufism, & the role of women (U of Georgia).
Islamic Texts & Resources Meta Page

Search engine designed to locate on-line info or interest to Muslims or anyone interested in Islam. Offers helpful lists of links to sites web resources for Muslim beliefs & practices, history, art, hadith, etc.
View Islam

Developing website created to provide accurate scholarly information on Islam for English-speaking non-Muslims posts essays on basic Islamic beliefs, the "five pillars" & contemporary issues,
Welcome to Isfahan!

Iran tourism leads a guided photographic tour of mosques, minarets and other architectural sites in the 12th-19th religious center of Persia.


Muhammad - the Prophet
About the Prophet Muhammad

USC Muslim Student Association's on-line collection of traditional biographical materials & modern assessments of the founder of Islam.
Description of the Prophet Mohammad

Extensive excerpt from The Message of Mohammad by Athar Hussein.
The Prophet of Islam - His Biography

Muhammad Hamidullah provides a modern biography of the founder of Islam for the electronic age.


The Quran (Koran)
The Koran

The U of Virginia's searchable SGML edition of M. H. Shakir's translation.
Translations of the Quran


JUDAISMTorah scroll

The original name for the people we now call Jews was Hebrews. The word "Hebrew" (in Hebrew, "Ivri") is first used in the Torah to describe Abraham (Gen. 14:13). The word is apparently derived from the name Eber, one of Abraham's ancestors. Another tradition teaches that the word comes from the word "eyver," which means "the other side," referring to the fact that Abraham came from the other side of the Euphrates, or referring to the fact Abraham was separated from the other nations morally and spiritually.

5762 Years Old and STILL Going!  The Jewish Calender  

Judaism 101 is an online encyclopedia of Judaism, covering Jewish beliefs, people, places, things, language, scripture, holidays, practices and customs. My goal is to make freely available a wide variety of basic, general information about Judaism, written from a traditional perspective in plain English.

JEWISH HOLIDAYS : The Month of Tishri, Rosh Hashanah, Days of Awe, Yom Kippur, Sukkot,

Shemini Atzeret and Simkhat Torah, Chanukkah, Tu B'Shevat,  Purim, Passover,  

The Counting of the Omer,  Shavu'ot, Tisha B'Av and more.

General Resources
Academic Jewish Studies on the Internet

H-Judaic, a moderated electronic scholarly forum, posts book reviews & provides searches for academic resources (on- & off-line) screened by H-Net, the Humanities & Social Sciences internet consortium hosted by Michigan State U.

Rosemarie Falanga & Cy Silver's "neutral space to study Torah, Mitzvot, and their meaning to Reform Jews" confronts disputes over Jewish identity & hosts discussion of the history & philosophy of Reform Judaism.
Documents of Jewish Belief

A. Engler Anderson's e-archive of classic texts opens with Solomon Schechter on Dogmas of Judaism and the Jewish Encyclopedia on Articles of Faith. Links to on-line materials at other sites selected to represent the range of modern Jewish belief systems (Reformed, Conservative, Orthodox, Reconstructionist & Hasidic).
Facts about Israel

The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs' lavishly illustrated virtual encyclopedia offers hyper-texted highlights of Israelite/Jewish history, archaeology, the biblical period, the second temple, the lot of Jews under foreign domination, & the modern state of Israel, the formation of a religiously diverse society with ethnic minorities & religious freedom in a land with sacred shines of many faiths.
A Great Assemblage: Art Exhibit of Judaica

Yale University Libraries' sampler of artifacts related to Jewish history includes images related to Esther (a Babylonian prototype of the lots (purim) of Haman & a Byzantine synagogue mural from Dura Europos) & traditional ceremonial decor (marriage contracts & the crowning achievements).
Jewish Interactive Studies

Rabbi Moshe Zauderer offers free courses on biblical studies, holidays & ethics (from Jerusalem).

Virtual community of scholars researching Judaism in Greco-Roman world archives e-messages (sorted by author & subject), articles, bibliographies. One of the oldest on-line lists (hosted by U Penn).
Judaism 101

Tracey Rich maintains a well-organized encyclopedia of basic information on Judaism in several formats. Includes pages on Jewish beliefs about G-d & human nature, movements within Judaism, attitudes toward non-Jews, the role of women, major sages, Hebrew words, divine names, Torah, halakhah, & the 613 commandments.
Judaism & Jewish Resources

Andrew Tannenbaum offers expert guidance to websites related to a host of topics, including Jewish learning, calendar, dietary laws (kashrut), & programs of Jewish studies.
Religion & Spirituality

Michael Graffam's no-frills text-based site provides quick links to well-selected on-line resources, primarily Jewish with an emphasis on mysticism.
Resources for the Study of Philo of Alexandria

Torrey Seland's comprehensive list of links to on-line materials related to the 1st c. CE Jewish Platonist, including his own essay on Philo's life and works.
The Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit

Website of the extensive collection of historic materials from the genizah of Cairo's 1000 year old Ben Ezra synagogue at the library of Cambridge U. provides an illustrated introduction to the project, with clickable images of important documents (such as the "Zadokite" fragments, the Wisdom of ben Sira, notes from Yehuda ha Levi, letters signed by Moses Maimonides) as well as an e-newsletter and G.O.L.D. (the Genizah's on-line data base).


Hebrew Bible

Biblical Times

Brief survey from the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs illustrated encyclopedia highlights the primary historical periods in the formation of Israel from the Hebrew patriarchs (17th c. BCE) to the Babylonian exile (586 BCE).

On-line texts, translations & commentary on Jewish scriptures are listed on the biblical studies page of this index.

Select websites of groups sponsoring on-line courses in traditional rabbinic Torah-study are located under Jewish confessional agencies.



small gold tao gate TAOISTgold fou dog

The founder of Taoism was Lao-Tse (604-531 BC), a contemporary of Confucius. (Alternate spellings: Lao Tze, Lao Tsu). He was searching for a way that would avoid the constant feudal warfare and other conflicts that disrupted life during his lifetime. The result was his book: Tao-te-Ching

Taoism started as a combination of psychology and philosophy but evolved into a religion in 440 CE when it was adopted as a state religion. At that time Lao-Tse became popularly venerated as a deity. Taoism, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became the three great religions of China.

History of Taoism   Images of Taoism   The Taoist Tradition: A Historical Outline

Taoism, or the Way

Taoist Sources
Chad Hansen's Daoist Home Page

Hong Kong U. scholar's on-line publication of his research includes his fresh translation of the Tao te Ching & Chuang Tzu along with drafts of articles on Taoist sages.

Richard Hooker surveys Taoist history & contrasts principles with Confucian (page from Anthology of World Civilizations).
Taoism & the Philosophy of Tai Chi Chuan.

Detailed introductions to Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu, the development of Taoism, its religious practices, deities, neo-Taoism & its relation to Tai Chi.
Tao te Ching






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